HIV proteome (Lifecycle)

The HIV-1 subtype C lifecycle is a complex multistage process involving interactions between HIV-1 proteins and host macromolecules. The Early phase of the lifecycle consists of infection of host cell and integration of viral genome, and the Late phase of the lifecycle consists of regulated expression of the viral gene products, and production of viral particles. You can find out information about each of the HIV-1 proteins, by clicking on the protein within the diagram.

Cite the resource by citing the following paper: Doherty R et al. BioAfrica's HIV-1 Proteomics Resource: Combining protein data with bioinformatics tools. Retrovirology (2005), 9;2(1):18. Resource updated in 2010 by Tulio de Oliveira ( and Philippe Le Mercier (ViralZone/SwissProt) as part of a collaborative research program between South Africa and Switzerland.

HIV Life Cycle, protein functions
CapsidNucleoCapsidgp120gp41VifReverse TranscriptaseMatrixVprIntegraseTatRevNefVpuProteaseViral AttachmentFusionCapsid ReleaseNuclear import of pre-integration complexesHost DNANuclear export of spliced mRNA to cytoplasmRibosomeTranslationImmature VirusBuddingMature Virus

Env polyprotein
  gp120 Surface
  gp41 Transmembrane


  p10 Protease
Reverse Transcription

Pol polyprotein
p51 Reverse Transciptase
  p15 RNase H
  p66 RT+RNase H
Vif protein (p23)


  Rev protein (p19)
Tat protein (p16/p14)


  Gag polyprotein
  p17 Matrix
  p24 Capsid
  p7 Nucleocapsid
  p6 Vpr binding
Nef protein (p27/p25)
  Vpu protein (p16)


Vpr protein (p12/p10)
p31 Integrase

Thanks to ViralZone at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics for generating this picture to be used at
Page last updated by Tulio de Oliveira.